Absorption, transfer, storage and disposal of copper is highly controlled. Copper is absorbed through the small intestine and it enters the cells through the process of diffusion and the exiting is done side-by-side through active transmissions, but it may also be done through diffusion. There is a constant competition between copper ions and other 2-volume cathodes. Copper is more likely to attach to metallothionein than zinc ions and other ions in intestinal absorption cells. The amounts of copper absorbed by metallothionein levels is determined in mucosal cells.
Searches were conducted by two independent researchers in international (PubMed, Web of science, Scopus and Google scholar) and national (SID, Magiran) databases for related studies from the inception of the databases to September 2017 (without time limitation) in English and Persian languages.
Copper is just one of the enzymes the deficiency of which causes malfunction in the process of enzymes. Copper, in the form of ceruloplasmin, has a crucial role in oxidizing iron before it is connected to plasma. RDA copper is 900 micrograms per day for adult women and men. Teens need 890 micrograms. Infusions in infants are 200 to 220 micrograms per day and between 340 and 440 micrograms in children. Preterm infants are born with little copper reserves and may need nutrient copper in their first months of life. Serum copper and ceruloplasmin levels are useful biomarkers to assess copper status in human body. More sensitive variables (such as copper enzymes in blood cells) are required for copper conditions. Copper deficiency is characterized by anemia, neutropenia, and skeletal disorders, especially non-mineralogical. Other changes that may develop include bone hemorrhage, depigmentation of the skin and hair and the formation of imperfect elastin.