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Uremic signs and symptoms in CKD patients

  •   Morteza Salar

Abstract

In addition to hypertension, cardiovascular disorders are prevalent in CKD patients. The mortality arising from cardiovascular diseases in CKD patients, especially in patients that are in stages 3 to 5 of this disease, is 3.5 times higher than their peers. Heart disease is the main cause of more than 50% of deaths among ESRD patients. Digestive disorders are included as the first and most prevalent symptoms of uremic syndrome. Patients suffering from renal failure commonly complain about the metallic taste and reduced appetite. These patients will then experience anorexia, vomiting, and weight loss. There are many manifestations of the central nervous system (CNS). They tend to manifest late, and they are commonly associated with tiredness and anorexia. These symptoms are commonly as changes in memory and cognitive performance as well as sleep disorders. The common manifestations of CKD and renal failure include changes in the hemostasis of phosphate and calcium, renal osteodystrophy, hyperparathyroidism, and disorder of vitamin D-metabolism. Hypocalcaemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism develop as a result of phosphate retention, lack of 1α-hydroxylase in the failed kidney, and the lack of the most active form of vitamin D. Erythropoietin (EPO) a kidney-produced hormone regulating the production of erythrocyte will experience a progressive lack as the renal disease progresses and the kidney volume decreases. Changes in thyroid function tests can be effective in the hard diagnosis of thyroid disease in patients with uremia. Laboratory findings include: high resin triiodothyronine (T3) uptake, low triiodothyronine uptake due to the disorder in converting thyroxine (T4) to resin triiodothyronine in the natural environment with normal thyroxine, and normal amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone. Sometimes, applying a stimulating test of thyrotropin-releasing hormone is possibly needed for diagnosing thyroid disorders in uremia. It is interesting that goiter is seen in one-third of the patients with chronic renal failure.

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Article Detail

DOI :
Volume & Issue : 2018: Volume 2 Issue 4
Page No.:

Citation

Salar, M. (2018). Uremic signs and symptoms in CKD patients. Journal of Medical Practice and Review, 2(04). Retrieved from http://jmpr.info/index.php/jmpr/article/view/57



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